Anxiolytic drug farmapram (alprazolam)
The potent agent. Farmapram has anxiolytic, central myorelaxant, anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antipanic effects. It has a depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS), which is realized mainly in the thalamus, hypothalamus and limbic system. It enhances inhibitory effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid, which is one of the main mediators of pre- and postsynaptic inhibition of nerve impulse transmission in CNS.
The mechanism of action of farmapram (alprazolam) is determined by stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors of supramolecular GABA-benzodiazepine-chlorionophore receptor complex, leading to activation of GABA receptor, causing reduction of excitability of subcortical structures of the brain, inhibition of polysynaptic spinal reflexes. Anxiolytic effect is manifested by reduction of emotional tension, easing of symptoms of anxiety, fear. Expressed anxiolytic activity is combined with moderate soporific action; it shortens the period of falling asleep, increases the duration of sleep, reduces the number of nocturnal awakenings. The mechanism of hypnotic action is inhibition of the reticular formation cells of the brain stem. It reduces the impact of emotional, vegetative and motor stimuli that disturb the mechanism of falling asleep.
It is used for treatment of neurotic and neurosis-like disorders with manifestation of anxiety, including those associated with depression. Panic disorders.
Tranquilizers (benzodiazepines) constitute one of the main classes of psychotropic drugs and have been used in clinical medicine for over 50 years. About 30 different benzodiazepine drugs (anxiolytics and hypnotics) are currently used. Despite the fact that in 1983 the WHO recognized the ability of benzodiazepines to cause drug dependence, nevertheless they are still widely used not only in psychiatry, but also in other fields of medicine, and in a number of cases they are indispensable. Development of antidepressants with pronounced anxiolytic action (especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), anxiolytics and hypnotics of non-benzodiazepine structure contributed to some displacement of benzodiazepines from treatment practice, but due to a specific action mechanism that ensures high and rapidly developing psychotropic activity and good tolerability, they invariably occupy their niche in therapy of neurotic level mental disorders.
The spectrum of action of benzodiazepines is traditionally divided into several main effects: anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), sedative, hypnotic, muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant and amnesic. Currently, their anxiolytic and hypnotic effects are the most important for clinical practice, while the others are hardly used or considered as side effects. Farmapram (alprazolam), a typical representative of benzodiazepine anxiolytics, has all the properties of the drugs of this group to varying degrees.
The main for it is anxiolytic action. Alprazolam belongs to high-potency benzodiazepines, i.e. a pronounced anxiolytic effect develops when using low doses of the drug. This is explained by the fact that alprazolam has a higher affinity for specific benzodiazepine receptors.